Acids & Alkalis Quiz
Acids & Alkalis
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#1. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion sulfate?
#2. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion sulfite?
#3. Complete the equation: H⁺(aq) + OH⁻(aq) → ....
#4. What is the formula for potassium hydroxide?
#5. What is the formula for hydrochloric acid?
#6. What is the formula for the polyatomic ion carbonate?
#7. Complete the equation: NaOH(aq) → Na⁺(aq) + ....
#8. Acids produce an excess of what when they dissolve in water?
#9. What is the formula for sodium hydroxide?
#10. Solutions of pH 7 are?
To answer the question “What are acids and alkalis?” you must first understand the difference between the two. When mixed with water, acid and alkalis produce hydrogen and hydroxide ions, respectively. Strong acids completely ionise or dissociate in water, whereas weak acids partially ionise in water. These chemicals are corrosive and should be kept away from the skin and clothes, through proper handling and safety procedures. Acidity and alkalinity are measured by the pH scale which is logarithmic, so each step up or down the scale means a difference of 10x. Acidic solutions have a pH of less than 7, neutral solutions have a pH of 7 and alkaline solutions have a pH of more than 7. The dangers of chemicals should be obvious from their hazard symbols. The concentration of an acid or alkaline solution is related to the number of hydrogen or hydroxide ions per unit volume, this means that even weak acids such as citric acid can be the same pH as strong acids such as hydrochloric acid.
Bases are substances that can neutralise acids, typically forming a salt. These materials are usually metal oxides or carbonates, such as magnesium oxide. Alkalis are bases that are soluble in water. Bases are commonly used in cleaning materials like detergents but are also used in some industrial chemical processes and in manufacturing. Acidic solutions are also readily found around the home in substances such as vinegar, though some of the main uses are in industrial and chemical processes. For example, sulfuric acid is used in the manufacturing of fertilisers as well as in more mundane settings such as car batteries.
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