AbundanceThe amount of a substance present in a sample or in the Earth’s crust, oceans or atmosphere.
AcidA substance with a pH less than 7 that reacts with bases to form salts.
AcidicHaving a pH less than 7.
AcidsSubstances with a pH less than 7 that react with bases to form salts.
Activation EnergyThe minimum amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to occur.
AirA mixture of gases that make up the Earth’s atmosphere.
AlkaliA substance with a pH greater than 7 that reacts with acids to form salts.
AlkalineHaving a pH greater than 7.
AlkalisSubstances with a pH greater than 7 that react with acids to form salts.
AlkaneA hydrocarbon with only single covalent bonds. All alkanes belong to the same homologous series. Alkanes are said to be saturated.
AlkanesHydrocarbons with only single covalent bonds. All alkanes belong to the same homologous series. Alkanes are said to be saturated.
AlkeneA hydrocarbon with at least one double covalent bond. All alkenes belong to the same homologous series. Alkenes are said to be unsaturated.
AlkenesHydrocarbons with at least one double covalent bond. All alkenes belong to the same homologous series. Alkenes are said to be unsaturated.
AlloyA mixture of two or more metals.
Alpha ParticlesPositively charged particles emitted by some radioactive substances. Consist of helium nuclei (2 protons and 2 neutrons).
Alternating CurrentAn electric current that changes direction at regular intervals.
AluminiumA metallic element with the symbol Al. Atomic number 13.
AmmoniumThe ion NH₄⁺, formed by the combination of ammonia and hydrogen ions.
AnionA negatively charged ion that is attracted to the anode in electrolysis.
AnionsA group of negatively charged ions.
AnodeThe electrode in an electrolytic cell that is positively charged and attracts the negatively charged anions.
ApparatusThe equipment used for carrying out experiments, such as beakers, test tubes, and pipettes.
AqAn abbreviation for “aqueous,” which means that a substance is dissolved in water.
AᵣThe relative atomic mass of an element. It is the average mass of one atom of an element compared to 1/12 of carbon-12.
ArgonA noble gas element with the atomic number 18.
AtmosphereThe layer of gases surrounding the Earth.
AtmosphericRelating to or caused by the Earth’s atmosphere.
AtomThe smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
AtomicRelating to atoms.
AtomsThe basic units of matter that make up all elements.
BariumA metallic element with the atomic number 56.
BeakerA cylindrical glass container with a flat bottom, used for stirring, mixing, and heating liquids.
Beta DecayA type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted from the nucleus.
BitumenA viscous, black, tar-like substance found in natural deposits or produced from petroleum.
BloodA red liquid that circulates in the veins and arteries of animals, including humans. It carries oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body and removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the cells. Blood also helps to regulate body temperature and fights infection through its white blood cells.
BoilingThe process in which a liquid changes into a gas at its boiling point temperature.
BondThe force that holds atoms together in a molecule.
Bond EnergiesThe amount of energy required to break a chemical bond.
BondingThe process of joining two or more atoms together to form a molecule or compound.
BondsConnections between atoms that hold them together to form molecules or compounds.
BoricRelating to or derived from boron.
BoronA chemical element with the atomic number 5.
Br₂The chemical formula for bromine, a halogen element with the atomic number 35.
BrittleA property of some materials that makes them easily breakable or prone to fracture under stress.
BromineA halogen element with the atomic number 35.
Bunsen BurnerA laboratory apparatus used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
C₂H₄The chemical formula for ethene, a hydrocarbon with a double bond between two carbon atoms.
C₅H₁₂The chemical formula for pentane, an aliphatic hydrocarbon with five carbon atoms.
C₆H₁₂O₆Chemical formula for glucose. A simple sugar molecule that is an important source of energy for living organisms. Is a key component of many carbohydrates.
CalciumA chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is an essential mineral for living organisms, particularly in the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth. It is also involved in muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting.
CarbonA chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6. It is a nonmetallic element that is the basis of all known life on Earth and is found in many different forms, including diamonds, graphite, and charcoal.
CarbonateA salt or ester of carbonic acid, containing the carbonate ion (CO₃²⁻). Carbonates are found in rocks, shells, and the skeletons of many marine organisms.
CarbonatesA group of minerals that contain the carbonate ion (CO₃²⁻). They are important components of many rocks and are used in building materials, such as limestone and marble.
CarbonationThe process of dissolving carbon dioxide gas in a liquid, typically water. Carbonation is used to create carbonated drinks, such as soda and sparkling water.
CarbonicRelating to or containing carbon dioxide or carbonic acid.
CatalystsSubstances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction themselves. Catalysts are used in many industrial processes and are important for the functioning of biological systems.
CathodeThe electrode in an electrochemical cell or battery that is negatively charged and where reduction occurs.
CationA positively charged ion, typically formed by the loss of one or more electrons from an atom.
CationsPositively charged ions that are attracted to negatively charged ions, or anions.
CellsThe basic unit of life in all living organisms. Cells are enclosed by a membrane and contain genetic material, which is used to direct their functions.
Ch₂A molecule of methane, which is the simplest hydrocarbon and is composed of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.
Ch₂OThe chemical formula for formaldehyde, which is a colorless gas that is used in many industrial processes and as a preservative.
Ch₄The chemical formula for methane, which is a colorless, odorless gas that is the main component of natural gas.
ChargeA property of matter that describes the presence of electrically charged particles, such as electrons and protons. The unit of charge is the Coulomb.
ChemicalRelating to or involving chemicals, which are substances with a defined composition and structure. Chemicals are used in many industrial and biological processes.
ChlorideA negatively charged ion that is formed when the element chlorine gains an electron. Chloride ions are important in many biological processes, including the regulation of fluid balance and the production of stomach acid.
ChloridesSalts that contain chloride ions, such as sodium chloride (table salt) and calcium chloride.
ChlorinationThe process of adding chlorine to water or other substances to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Chlorination is commonly used to treat drinking water and swimming pools.
ChlorineA chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It is a highly reactive and toxic gas that is commonly used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.
ChlorofluorocarbonsA group of organic compounds that contain chlorine, fluorine, and carbon atoms. They were once widely used as refrigerants, propellants, and solvents, but are now mostly banned due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer.
ChooseTo make a decision between two or more options. In science, choosing the correct experimental method or hypothesis is important to ensure accurate results.
ChromatogramA graph or chart that shows the results of a chromatography experiment. It displays the separation of the components of a mixture based on their physical and chemical properties.
ChromatographyA laboratory technique used to separate and analyze the components of a mixture based on their physical and chemical properties. It is widely used in chemistry, biochemistry, and forensic science.
ClThe chemical symbol for chlorine. A halogen with the atomic number 17.
Cl₂The chemical formula for chlorine gas, which is a highly reactive and toxic gas that is commonly used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent.
ClimateThe long-term average weather conditions of a region or the Earth as a whole. Climate is influenced by many factors, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and ocean currents.
ClottingThe process of blood changing from a liquid to a gel-like state, forming a blood clot. Blood clotting is an important biological process that helps to prevent excessive bleeding from wounds.
Co₂The chemical formula for carbon dioxide, a colorless, odorless gas that is a greenhouse gas and plays a key role in the Earth’s carbon cycle.
CobaltA chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, gray metal that is used in many industrial applications, including batteries, magnets, and alloys.
Collision TheoryA theory that explains how chemical reactions occur by proposing that molecules must collide with each other in order to react. The collision theory takes into account factors such as temperature, pressure, and the concentration of reactants.
CollisionsThe physical contact between two or more particles, such as atoms or molecules. Collisions are an important factor in many chemical reactions and physical processes.
CombustionA chemical reaction that occurs between a fuel and an oxidizing agent, typically oxygen. Combustion releases energy in the form of heat and light and is used in many industrial and domestic applications, including the burning of fossil fuels and the cooking of food.
CommunitiesGroups of interacting living organisms that occupy the same geographic area. Communities can be composed of many different species and are often shaped by biotic and abiotic factors in their environment.
CompoundA substance made up of two or more different elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. Examples of compounds include water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
CompoundsPlural of “compound”. A compound is a substance made up of two or more different elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio
ConcentratedA solution that contains a large amount of solute in a given volume of solvent. Concentrated solutions are often indicated by a high molarity or percentage concentration.
ConcentrationThe amount of solute present in a given volume or mass of solution. Concentration can be expressed in a variety of units, such as molarity, percentage, and parts per million.
CondensationThe process by which a gas or vapor changes to a liquid. Condensation is the opposite of evaporation and is an important process in the water cycle.
CondenseTo change from a gas or vapor to a liquid by cooling or by being subjected to high pressure.
CondensedIn chemistry, a substance that has condensed from a gas or vapor to a liquid.
CondenserA device used to condense a gas or vapor into a liquid. Condensers are used in many applications, including refrigeration, distillation, and air conditioning.
ConductTo allow electricity or heat to pass through a material. Materials that conduct electricity well are called conductors.
ConductionThe transfer of heat or electricity through a material by direct contact.
ConductorA material that allows electricity or heat to pass through it easily. Metals are good conductors of electricity.
ConductorsPlural of “conductor”. A conductor is something that allows electricity or heat to pass through it.
ConservationThe practice of using resources in a sustainable manner to ensure their availability for future generations. Conservation is an important concept in environmental science.
ContaminateTo make something impure or unclean by adding harmful substances. Contamination can have negative effects on the environment and human health.
CopperA chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable metal that is used in many applications, including electrical wiring, plumbing, and currency.
Coral BleachingThe process by which coral reefs become pale or white due to stress or environmental changes. Coral bleaching is often caused by rising ocean temperatures and can have devastating effects on marine ecosystems.
CorrelationA statistical measure that indicates the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables.
CovalentA type of chemical bond in which atoms share electrons. Covalent bonds are typically formed between nonmetal atoms.
CovalentlyAdverb form of “covalent”. Example sentence – the oxygen molecule commonly found in the atmosphere is bonded covalently.
CrackingThe process of breaking down large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones by heating them to high temperatures. Cracking is an important step in the refining of crude oil.
CrudeA substance that has not been refined or processed. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that is extracted from the ground.
CrystallisationThe process by which a solid forms from a liquid or gas and assumes a regular, repeating structure. Crystallisation is an important process in the formation of minerals and other solid materials.
DelocalisedIn chemistry, a term used to describe electrons that are not associated with a particular atom or bond but are instead spread out over a larger region.
Delocalised PoolA term used to describe a group of electrons that are not associated with a particular atom or bond but are instead spread out over a larger region.
DensityThe amount of mass per unit volume of a substance.
DepositionThe process of a gas turning into a solid without passing through the liquid state.
DesalinationThe process of removing salt and other minerals from seawater
DiamondA form of pure carbon with a tetrahedral structure. Each carbon atom is bonded to 4 other carbon atoms meaning there are no free electrons to carry a charge. Therefore, diamonds do not conduct electricity.
DiatomicMolecules composed of two atoms of the same element.
DieselA type of fuel made from crude oil that is commonly used in diesel engines.
DiluteA solution that contains a low concentration of solute.
Dimitri MendeleevA Russian chemist who proposed the periodic table of elements.
DioxideA compound consisting of two oxygen atoms bonded together with another element.
DisplacementA reaction in which one element or ion replaces another element or ion in a compound.
DissociateThe separation of ions or molecules into smaller particles, often in a solution.
DissolveThe process of a substance being dissolved in a solvent.
DissolvedA substance that has been dissolved in a solvent.
DistillationThe process of separating a mixture of liquids by heating and cooling to collect the different components.
DistilledA liquid that has been purified by distillation.
Dm³The abbreviation for cubic decimeter, a unit of volume.
DroughtsA prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall that can lead to a water shortage.
EarthquakesThe shaking or trembling of the Earth’s surface caused by the movement of tectonic plates or volcanic activity.
EcologicalRelating to the study of living organisms and their environment.
EcosystemsA community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment.
ElapsedThe amount of time that has passed since the beginning of a process or event.
ElectricityA form of energy resulting from the movement of charged particles.
ElectrodeA conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an electrolyte or a vacuum.
ElectrodesTwo or more conductors through which electricity enters or leaves an electrolyte or a vacuum.
ElectrolysisThe process of using electricity to cause a chemical reaction, such as breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen.
ElectrolyteA substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water.
ElectronA negatively charged subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
Electron ShellsThe regions surrounding the nucleus of an atom where electrons are found.
ElectronicRelating to the behaviour or properties of electrons.
Electronic ConfigurationThe arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom or molecule.
ElectronsNegatively charged subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom.
ElectrostaticRelating to the electric charge at rest or the phenomena arising from electric charge at rest.
ElementA substance made up of only one type of atom.
ElementsThe basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means.
EmittedThe process of releasing something, such as gas or radiation, into the environment.
Empirical FormulaThe simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound.
Enclosed SystemA system in which no matter or energy can enter or leave.
EndothermicA chemical reaction or process that absorbs energy from the surroundings.
EnergyThe capacity to do work or produce heat.
Energy TransferThe movement of energy from one system to another
EngineerA person who designs, builds, or maintains machines, engines, or structures
EnthalpyA measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system
EnzymesBiological molecules that catalyse chemical reactions in living organisms
EquationA mathematical statement that shows that two or more things are equal. In science, equations are used to represent chemical reactions and other relationships between variables.
EquilibriumThe state in which the forward and reverse reactions in a chemical system occur at equal rates
Ernest RutherfordA New Zealand-born physicist who is best known for his work on the structure of atoms. He conducted the famous gold foil experiment which led to the discovery of the atomic nucleus.
ErosionThe process by which soil and rock are removed from the Earth’s surface by natural processes such as wind, water, and ice
EsterA compound formed from the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid
EthaneA hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C2H6
Ethanoic AcidA weak organic acid with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is commonly known as acetic acid and is the main component of vinegar. Ethanoic acid is used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and other chemicals.
EthanolA type of alcohol with the chemical formula C2H5OH
EtheneA hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C2H4
EutrophicationThe process by which a body of water becomes enriched in nutrients, leading to increased plant growth and decay, and depletion of oxygen in the water
EvaporatedWhen a liquid turns into a gas or vapour as a result of being heated.
EvaporatingThe process of turning a liquid into a gas or vapour as a result of being heated.
Evaporating BasinA container used to evaporate liquids.
EvaporationThe process of a liquid turning into a gas or vapour as a result of being heated.
EvidenceInformation or data that supports or proves a hypothesis or theory. In science, evidence is collected through observation, experimentation and data analysis.
EvolutionThe process by which different species of organisms develop and change over time
Exact ScienceA field of science that relies on measurements, observations, and experimentation to develop theories and understand natural phenomena
ExcretionThe process by which waste products are eliminated from the body
ExothermicA chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat, light or sound.
ExperimentA scientific investigation that is carried out to test a hypothesis or answer a research question.
ExtinctionsThe process of a species dying out completely.
ExtractionThe process of obtaining a substance from a mixture or solution by physical or chemical means
FatsA type of nutrient that is essential to the body for energy and insulation
FeedstockThe raw materials used in an industrial process.
FermentationThe chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, often resulting in the production of alcohol, acids, or gases
FiltrationA process that separates solid particles from a liquid or gas by passing it through a filter.
FiniteHaving limits or boundaries. In science, this term is used to describe things that have a specific size or duration.
FlaccidLimp or soft. In biology, this term is used to describe plant cells that have lost water and become flimsy or floppy.
FlaskA container used for holding or mixing liquids.
FlowThe movement of a liquid or gas in a particular direction.
FluidA substance that can flow and take the shape of its container.
FluidsSubstances that can flow and take the shape of their container, such as liquids and gases.
FluorineA chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and is highly reactive.
ForceA push or pull on an object that causes it to move, change direction, or deform.
FormulaA mathematical or chemical expression that shows the relationship between different variables or elements.
FossilThe remains or traces of a plant or animal that lived a long time ago, preserved in rock or sediment.
FrackingA method of extracting natural gas or oil from shale rock by injecting water, sand and chemicals into the ground to release the gas or oil.
Fractional DistillationA process used to separate different components of a mixture based on their boiling points. It is commonly used in the refining of crude oil to produce different fuels and chemicals.
Fractionating ColumnA tall tower used in fractional distillation to separate liquids
FreezingThe process of turning a liquid into a solid
FullerenesMolecules composed entirely of carbon, taking various shapes
FunnelA utensil used for pouring liquid or other substance
GalliumA chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31
Gamma RaysElectromagnetic radiation of high frequency and short wavelength
GasA state of matter that has no definite shape or volume
GaseousRelating to or having the characteristics of a gas
GasesPlural of gas
GauzeA thin, transparent fabric with a loose open weave
GiantVery large or great in size or intensity
GlaciationThe process, condition, or result of being covered by glaciers
GlaciersA large, slow-moving mass of ice formed by accumulation of snow
GlucoseA simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy
GoldA chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79
GrapheneA single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice
GraphiteA soft, black, and flaky form of carbon used as a solid lubricant
Greenhouse GasA gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect
H₂OChemical formula for water
H₂So₄Chemical formula for sulfuric acid
HaemoglobinThe protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
HclChemical formula for hydrochloric acid
HeatThe transfer of thermal energy between systems at different temperatures
Heatproof MatA mat that is resistant to heat and used to protect surfaces
HeliumA chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2
HeterogenousConsisting of different substances or parts
HomologousHaving the same or similar structure, origin, or position
Homologous SeriesA series of organic compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties
HydrocarbonA compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon atoms
HydrocarbonsPlural of hydrocarbon
HydrochloricA highly acidic solution formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas in water
HydrogenA colourless, odourless, highly flammable gas that is the lightest element in the periodic table with atomic number 1
HydroxideA compound containing the OH⁻ ion, typically a base or alkali
HydroxidesPlural of hydroxide
IgnitionThe process of starting combustion or burning
ImpureContaining impurities or substances mixed in, not pure
ImpuritiesUnwanted substances mixed into a material
InertNot chemically reactive, unreactive
InfraredElectromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light, but shorter than microwaves
InsolubleIncapable of being dissolved in a particular solvent
InsulatorsMaterials that do not conduct electricity or heat well
IntermolecularOccurring between molecules
IodineA non-metallic chemical element with atomic number 53 and symbol I, often used as an antiseptic
IonAn atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
IonicPertaining to ions, or the transfer of electrons between atoms to form ions
IonicallyIn an ionic manner
IoniseTo convert an atom or molecule into an ion
IonsPlural of ion
IronA metallic chemical element with atomic number 26 and symbol Fe
IsotopeEach of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons
IsotopesPlural of isotope
John DaltonAn English chemist and physicist who worked on modern atomic theory
KeroseneA light fuel oil typically used as a heating and cooking fuel, also known as paraffin
Kinetic EnergyThe energy an object possesses due to its motion
KjAbbreviation for kilojoule, a unit of energy
KohPotassium hydroxide, a strong alkali
LatticeA regular arrangement of points in space
LeadA heavy, soft, and malleable bluish-gray metal that is highly toxic and has been used for various purposes such as pipes, bullets, and batteries.
LimestoneA sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate that is commonly used in the production of cement and concrete.
LimewaterA solution of calcium hydroxide that is used in various applications, such as in agriculture to test for carbon dioxide, and in medicine to treat acid-related stomach problems.
Limiting FactorThe factor that limits the rate or extent of a chemical reaction, such as the availability of reactants or the temperature.
Limiting ReactantThe reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the extent of the reaction and determines the amount of product that can be formed.
LiquidA state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape, and takes the shape of its container.
LiquidsPlural of liquid.
LithiumA soft, silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and used in various applications such as batteries and pharmaceuticals.
LivestockFarm animals such as cows, pigs, and sheep that are raised for food, fiber, and other products.
MagnesiumA silvery-white metal that is highly reactive and used in various applications such as alloys, pyrotechnics, and medicine.
MagneticHaving the property of attracting certain materials, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, due to the presence of a magnetic field.
MalleableCapable of being hammered or pressed into various shapes without breaking or cracking, such as metals.
MarbleA metamorphic rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate that is commonly used in construction and sculpture.
MassThe amount of matter in an object, typically measured in grams or kilograms.
MatterAnything that has mass and occupies space.
MeltingThe process of changing a solid into a liquid by adding heat.
MercuryA silvery-white liquid metal that is highly toxic and used in various applications such as thermometers, barometers, and dental fillings.
MetalA solid material that is typically shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity.
MetallicRelating to or characteristic of metals.
MetallicallyIn a metallic manner.
MetalsPlural of metal.
MethaneA colorless, odorless gas that is the main component of natural gas and is used as a fuel and a feedstock in various industries.
MethanolA colorless, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent, fuel, and antifreeze, and is also a feedstock for the production of formaldehyde and other chemicals.
Mg²The symbol for magnesium ion with a charge of +2.
MixtureA combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded and can be separated by physical means.
MolAbbreviation for mole.
Molar RatioThe ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a chemical reaction.
MoleThe SI base unit for the amount of substance, defined as the amount of a substance that contains as many entities (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12.
MolecularRelating to molecules or composed of molecules.
MoleculeA group of two or more atoms chemically bonded together.
MoleculesTwo or more atoms joined together by covalent bonds.
MoltenA substance that is in a liquid state as a result of being heated to a high temperature.
MomentumThe quantity of motion of a moving object, measured as the product of its mass and velocity.
MonomersSmall, repeating molecular units that can be bonded together to form a polymer.
MonoxideA compound that contains one oxygen atom and one other atom.
MᵣThe relative molecular mass of a substance, measured in g/mol.
NanoelectronicsThe study and development of electronic devices and systems on a nanometer scale.
NaohThe chemical formula for sodium hydroxide, a strong base commonly used in the manufacture of soap and paper.
Negative ChargeA charge that is associated with electrons, which are negatively charged particles.
NeonA chemical element with the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas and is found in trace amounts in the Earth’s atmosphere.
NeutralA solution or substance that has a pH of 7 and is neither acidic nor basic.


In the context of electric charge, “neutral” means having no overall charge. This means that the number of positive charges is equal to the number of negative charges, resulting in a net charge of zero. An object that is neutral won’t be attracted or repelled by other charged objects.
NeutralisationA chemical reaction between an acid and a base that results in the formation of a salt and water.
NeutronsSubatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom that have no charge.
NickelA silvery-white metal with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is commonly used in alloys and plating.
NitrateA polyatomic ion with the formula NO3-, which is commonly found in fertilizers.
NitratesCompounds that contain the nitrate ion, such as potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate.
NitricA term used to describe compounds that contain nitrogen and oxygen, such as nitric acid.
NitrogenA chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It is a diatomic gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere.
No₃-The chemical formula for the nitrate ion.
NuclearRelating to the nucleus of an atom, or to nuclear reactions.
NucleiPlural of nucleus, which is the positively charged center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
NucleusThe positively charged center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
OrganismsLiving things, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms.
OsmosisThe movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane.
OxidationA chemical reaction in which a substance loses electrons and becomes more positively charged.
OxideA compound that contains one or more oxygen atoms bonded to one or more other elements.
OxidesCompounds that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
OxygenA chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a diatomic gas that makes up about 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere.
OzonationA water treatment process that uses ozone to disinfect and purify water.
Pair ReversalsA problem that occured with Dimitri Mendeleev’s Periodic Table where pairs of elements were swapped from their correct positions. This happened because instead of using the atomic number to ordanise the table, a quantity called atomic weight was used. Atomic weight is the same as relative atomic mass.
ParticleA tiny piece of matter that makes up all substances.
ParticlesA collective term for atoms, molecules, and ions.
PathogensMicroorganisms that cause diseases.
PbThe chemical symbol for lead. A metallic element in group 4 that has the atomic number 82. Tip! to remember this chemical formula, think of “pencil broke” since pencils have lead in them (actually its not lead its graphite, but we call it lead).
Periodic TableA tabular arrangement of the elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and chemical properties.
PeroxideA compound containing the -O-O- group, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
PetrolA volatile mixture of hydrocarbons, used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. Also known as gasoline.
PhA measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution, ranging from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic).
PhaseThe physical state of matter, such as solid, liquid, or gas.
PhosphorusA nonmetallic chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15.
PhotosynthesisThe process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods with the help of chlorophyll.
PlateletsSmall blood cells that help in the clotting of blood.
PollutionThe presence or introduction into the environment of substances or contaminants that cause harm or discomfort to living organisms.
Polyatomic IonA charged particle composed of two or more atoms bonded together.
PondweedAn aquatic plant commonly used in experiments to investigate photosynthesis.
PositionsA term used to describe the location or arrangement of particles.
PositiveA term used to describe a charge of a proton or an object that has an excess of protons.
PositronsThe antiparticle of an electron, having the same mass as an electron but a positive charge.
PotassiumA metallic chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19.
PrecipitateA solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
PrecipitationThe process by which a substance is separated from a solution as a solid.
ProductsThe substances that are formed from a chemical reaction.
PropertiesThe characteristic features of a substance that define its identity and behavior.
ProtonA positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom.
ProtonsPositively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom.
RadiationThe emission or transmission of energy through space or matter in the form of particles or waves.
RadiowavesElectromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz.
RateThe speed at which a chemical reaction occurs.
ReactantA substance that takes part in a chemical reaction.
ReactantsThe substances that participate in a chemical reaction.
ReactionA process in which one or more substances are converted into different substances.
Reaction ProfilesDiagrams that show the energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction.
ReductionThe removal of oxygen from a substance or the addition of hydrogen to it.
RenewableAn energy resource that can be replenished naturally in a relatively short amount of time, such as wind or solar energy.
ResolutionThe smallest distance by which two objects can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate objects.
RespirationThe process by which organisms convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy that can be used by the organism.
RfRetardation factor, a value used in chromatography to calculate the relative mobility of a substance.
RustingThe corrosion of iron or steel, typically in the presence of water and oxygen, resulting in the formation of iron oxide.
SaltAn ionic compound formed from the neutralisation reaction of an acid and a base.
SaltsIonic compounds composed of cations and anions, formed from the reaction between an acid and a base.
SaturatedA solution in which the solvent has dissolved as much solute as possible at a given temperature and pressure.
SeparatedTo divide or part something, such as a mixture, into constituent parts.
SilverA lustrous, white, ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity.
So₄²Sulfate ion, a polyatomic anion with the formula SO₄²⁻.
SodiumA soft, silvery-white metallic element that reacts explosively with water.
SolidA state of matter in which the substance has a definite shape and volume.
SolidsSubstances in the solid state of matter.
SolubilityThe maximum amount of a solute that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature and pressure.
SolubleCapable of being dissolved in a particular solvent.
SoluteA substance that is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution.
SolutionA homogeneous mixture composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent.
SolutionsHomogeneous mixtures composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent.
SolventA substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution.
SpeciesA group of similar organisms capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.
SpeedThe rate at which an object moves.
SplintA thin strip of wood or cardboard used for kindling a fire.
SpontaneousOccurring without external influence or intervention.
StateOne of the three physical forms of matter, i.e., solid, liquid, or gas.
SteamWater vapour, particularly when produced by boiling water.
SteriliseTo eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or surface.
Strong AcidAn acid that completely dissociates in water, producing a high concentration of hydrogen ions.
Subatomic ParticlesThe particles that make up atoms, including protons, neutrons, and electrons.
SublimatedThe process of a solid changing directly to a gas without passing through a liquid state.
SublimationThe process of a solid changing directly to a gas without passing through a liquid state.
SubstanceA type of matter that is homogeneous and has definite chemical and physical properties.
SulfateA salt or ester of sulfuric acid.
SulfatesSalts that contain the sulfate ion (SO4²-). Sulfates are often found in minerals and are an important source of sulfur. They are also commonly used in the manufacturing of fertilizers, dyes, and detergents.
SulfurA chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, nonmetallic element that is essential for life and used in many industrial processes. Sulfur is found in many minerals and is a major component of volcanic gases. It is also used in the production of sulfuric acid, fertilizers, and other chemicals.
SulfuricReferring to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a highly corrosive and dense liquid that is widely used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other chemicals. It is also used in lead-acid batteries and as a dehydrating agent.
SunThe star at the center of the solar system. It is the most important source of energy for life on Earth and is responsible for the Earth’s climate and weather. The sun is a massive ball of plasma that generates light and heat through nuclear fusion.
TemperatureA measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance. Temperature is usually measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F) and is an important factor in many physical and chemical processes.
TetrahedralReferring to the arrangement of four atoms or groups of atoms around a central atom in a molecule. The tetrahedral shape is often seen in molecules with four bonded atoms or groups, such as methane (CH4) or carbon dioxide (CO2).
TheoryA well-supported explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is based on observations, experimentation, and reasoning. Scientific theories are often the result of many years of research and can provide a framework for understanding a wide range of phenomena.
ThermalReferring to heat or the transfer of heat. Thermal energy is the energy that a system possesses due to the motion of its particles, and it can be transferred from one system to another through conduction, convection, or radiation.
TinA chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that is used in the production of various alloys, such as bronze, pewter, and solder. Tin is also used in the manufacture of food packaging and other products.
Transition MetalsThese elements are characterized by their high melting points, malleability, and good conductivity of heat and electricity.
UltravioletA type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. Ultraviolet radiation is often referred to as UV radiation and is responsible for sunburns and skin damage. It is also used in sterilization and in many industrial processes, such as curing plastics and printing.
UncertaintyThe range of values within which the true value of a measurement is likely to lie.
UniformityThe quality or state of being uniform, meaning consistent throughout or evenly distributed.
UnitsStandards of measurement used to express the quantities of physical quantities, such as length, mass, and time.
UnsaturatedRefers to a solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature and pressure.
UvShort for ultraviolet radiation, which is a type of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light.
VariationThe extent to which values or measurements differ from each other or from a standard.
ViscosityA measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow, or the “thickness” of the fluid.
ViscousHaving a high viscosity, meaning that the fluid has a high resistance to flow.
Visible LightThe portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye, with wavelengths ranging from approximately 400 to 700 nanometers.
VolcanismThe processes by which magma and associated gases rise to the Earth’s surface and erupt as volcanic activity.
VolumeThe amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object, typically measured in cubic units.
WaterA clear, colourless, odourless and tasteless liquid that is essential for most forms of life and is the main constituent of the Earth’s surface. Its chemical formula is H2O.
Water VapourThe gaseous state of water, formed when liquid water evaporates.
Weak AcidAn acid that only partially ionizes in solution and has a pH greater than 7.
WeatherThe state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place, determined by factors such as temperature, precipitation, and wind.
WeatheringThe breaking down of rocks, soils, and other geological materials through exposure to the Earth’s atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
WeightA measure of the force exerted on an object due to gravity, usually expressed in newtons or pounds.
ZincA bluish-white, metallic chemical element with the symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is commonly used in galvanizing iron and steel, as well as in various alloys.